Categories of Alien Plants

Invasive Alien Plants are widely considered a major threat to biodiversity, human livehoods and economic development.
Invasive alien plants are categorised into 3 categories and a fourth where identified alien plant species are waiting category placement 

Category 1
Invasive species requiring compulsory control. Remove and destroy. Any specimens of Category 1 listed species need, by law, to be eradicated from the environment. These plants are deemed to have such a high invasive potential that infestations.

Category 2:
Invasive species regulated by area. A demarcation permit is required to import, possess, grow, breed, move, sell, buy or accept as a gift any plants listed as Category 2 plants. No permits will be issued for Category 2 plants to exist in riparian zones.

Category 3:
Invasive species regulated by activity. An individual plant permit is required to undertake any of the following restricted activities (import, possess, grow, breed, move, sell, buy or accept as a gift) involving a Category 3 species. No permits will be issued for Catrgory 3 plants to exist in riparian zones.Weed Buster

Alien Plants still to be classified:
Identified Alien plant species awaiting category placement 

Plant Lists:
Emerging Species
Trees and Shrubs
Trees
Herbs and Grasses
Aquatics, climbers and reeds.

more info at: SANBI

The images and information contained on this page are © eThekwini Conservation Branch , publication 'Beautiful but Dangerous'
Design and layout © Angie Wilken
Acknowledgements at page base.

Click on links below images to reveal lists of Indigenous Alturnatives

 Acacia longifolia - Long-leaved Wattle Achyranthes aspera - Burweed 
 Euclea racemosa - Bush Guarri  Asystasia gangetica - Creeping Foxglove
 Podocarpus latifolius - Real Yellowwood  Hypoestes forskaolii - White Ribbon Bush
 Sapium integerrimum - Duiker-berry  Justica betonica - Paper Plume
 Ageratina adenophora - crofton weed Ageratum conyzoides & houstonianum 
 Baleria obtusa or Baleria albostella - Bush Violet  Tetraselago natalensis - Natal Blue Haze
 Baleria saxatalis - Small Blue Barleria   Vernonia capensis - Narrow-leaved Vernonia
 Peristrophe cernua - False Buckwheat  Vernonia natalensis - Silver Vernonia
 Albizia lebbeck - lebbeck tree Albizia procera - false lebbeck 
 Acacia sieberiana - Paperbark Thorn  Acacia xanthophloea - Fever Tree
 Albizia adianthifolia - Flat- crown  Albizia adianthifolia - Flat-crown
 Albizia versicolor - Large-leaved False-thorn  Ficus bubu - Swazi Fig
 Anrecera cordifolia Araujia sericifera - moth catcher 
 Cissus rotundifolia - Bushveld Grape  Mondia whitei - White’s Ginger
 Rhoicissus tomentosa - Common Forest Grape  Petopentia natalensis - Propeller Vine
  Tinospora caffra - Orange Grape Creeper  Tacazzea apiculata - Crawcraw Vine
 Ardisia crenata - coral bush Aristolochia elegans 
 Erthroxylum delagoense - Small-leaved Coco Tree  Dioscorea cotinifolia - Wild Yam
 Pavetta revoluta - Dune Bride’s Bush  Ipomoea ficifolia - Fig-leaved Ipomoea
 Psychotria capensis - Black Bird-berry   Vernonia angulifolia - Trailing Vernonia
 Arundo donax - giant or SPANISH reed Azolla filiculoides - red water fern 
 Miscanthus capensis - East-Coast Broom Grass  Ludwigia stolonifera - Creeping Ludwigia
 Phragmites australis - Common Reed  Trapa natans - Water Chestnut
 Typha capensis - Bulrush  Utricularia inflexa - Bladderwort
 Bauhinia variegata Bryophyllum delagoense - chandelier plant 
 Afzelia quanzensis - Pod Mahogany  Cotyledon orbiculata - Pig’s Ears
 Calodendrum capensis - Cape Chestnut  Kalanchoe crenata - Yellow Hairy Kalanchoe
 Schotia brachypetala - Weeping Boer-bean  Kalanchoe thyrsiflora - White Lady
 Caesalpinia decapetala - MAURITIUS thorn Callisia repens - dwarf-striped inch plant 
 Acacia kraussiana - Coast Climbing Thorn  Crassula expansa - Fragile Crassula
 Adenopodia spicata - Spiny Splinter Bean  Crassula multicava - Fairy Crassula
 Caesalpinia bonduc - Grey Nickernut Creeper  Plectranthus strigosus - Small Money Plant
 Canna indica - wild canna or INDIAN shot Cardiospermum grandiflorum - Balloon vine 
 Crocosmia aurea - Falling Stars  Clematis brachiata - Traveller’s Joy
 Gladiolus dalenii - African Gladiolus  Jasminum angulare - Wild Jasmine
 Kniphofia spp. - Red Hot Pokers  Rhoicissus rhomboidea - Glossy Forest Grape
 Cestrum aurantiacum Cestrum laevigatum - inkberry 
 Bauhinia tomentosa - Bush Neat’s Foot  Kraussia floribunda - Rhino-coffee
 Burchellia bubalina - Wild Pomegranate  Peddiea africana - Poison Olive
 Polygala myrtifolia - September Bush  Psychotria capensis - Black Bird-berry
 Chromolaena odorata - triffid weed Cinnamomum camphora - camphor tree 
 Chrysanthemoides monilifera - Bush-tick Berry  Apodytes dimidiata - White Pear
 Peristrophe cernua - False Buckwheat  Cryptocarya latifolia - Broad-leaved Quince
 Tecoma capensis - Cape Honeysuckle  Cryptocarya woodii - Cape Quince
 Cortaderia selloana - pampas grass Eichhornia crassipes - water hyacinth 
 Cymbopogon spp. - Turpentine Grasses  Nymphaea Lotus - White Waterlily
  Mariscus solidus  Nymphaea nochali - Blue Waterlily
 Miscanthus capensis - East-coast Broom Grass  Nymphoides thunbergiana - Small Yellow Waterlily
 Eugenia uniflora - cherry hedge or surinam cherry Hedychium coccineum - red ginger lily 
 Cryptocarya wylei - Red Quince  Crinum moorei - Moore’s Lily
 Eugenia natalitia - Common Forest Myrtle  Dracaena aletriformis - Large-leaved Dragon Tree
 Teclea gerrardii - Zulu Cherry-orange  Siphonochilus aethiopicus - Wild Ginger
 Hedychium coronarium- white ginger lily Ipomoea alba - moonflower 
 Crinum moorei - Moore’s Lily  Ipomoea albivenia - Climbing Kapok
 Dracaena aletriformis - Large-leaved Dragon Tree  Ipomoea ficifolia - Fig-leaved Ipomoea
 Siphonochilus aethiopicus - Wild Ginger  Mondia whitei - White’s Ginger
 Jacaranda mimosifolia - jacaranda Lantana camara - tickberry/lantana 
 Calodendrum capense - Cape Chestnut  Chrysanthemoides monilifera
 Millettia grandis - Umzimbeet  Peristrophe cernua - False Buckwheat
 Schotia brachypetala - Weeping Boer-bean  Plumbago auriculata - Plumbago
 Ligustrum lucidum - chinese wax-leaved privet Lilium formosanum
 Apodytes dimidata - White Pear  Crinum bulbispermum - Orange River Lily
 Chinanthus peglerae - White Pock Ironwood  Crinum macowani - River Lily
 Olea woodiana - Forest Olive  Hibiscus calyphyllus - Large Yellow Wild Hibiscus
 Litsea glutinosa - INDIAN laurel Macfadyena unguis-cati  
 Bridelia micrantha - Mitzeeri  Senecio tamoides - Canary Creeper
 Proyorhus longifoloia - Red Beech  Senecio brachypodus
 Trichilia dregeana - Forest Mahogany  Strophanthus spp. - Poison Ropes
 Melia azedarach - syringa Mirabilis jalapa  
 Bersama lucens - Glossy White Ash  Dissotis canescens - Pink Wild Tibouchina 
 Ekebergia capensis - Cape Ash  Orthosiphon labiatus - Shell Bush
 Trichilia dregeana - Forest Mahogany  Thunbergia natalensis - Natal Blue Bell
 Montanoa hibiscifolia - tree daisy/montanoa Myriophyllum aquaticum
 Dombeya burgessiae - Pink Wild Pear  Ludwigia stolonifera - creeping Ludwigia
 Rothmannia globosa - September Bells  Sium repandum - Water Parsnip
 Xylotheca kraussiana - African Dog-rose  Trapa natans - Water Chestnut
 Nephrolepis exaltat - sword fern  Nerium oleander - oleander
 Microsorium scolopendrium - Creeping Dune Fern  Acokanthera oblongifolia - Dune Poison-bush
 Nephrolepis biserrata - Giant Forest Fern  Bauhinia galpinii - Pride-of-De-Kaap
 Rumohra adiantifrmis - Leather Fern  Brachylaena discolor - Coast Silver Oak
 Opuntia monacantha - drooping prickly pear Passiflora suberosa - indigo berry
 Aloe arborescens - Krantz Aloe  Cissus fragilis - Forest Grape Vine
 Crassula ovata - Kerky-bush  Jasminum multipartitum - Starry Wild Jasmine
 Pennisetum purpureum - elephant grass/napier fodder Pennisetum setaceum
 Miscanthus capensis - East-coast Broom Grass  Setaria megaphylla - Broad-leaved Bristle Grass
 Phragmites australis - Phragmites Reed  Setaria sphacelata - Golden Bristle Grass
 Pereskia aculeata - barbados gooseberry/pereskia Pistia stratiotes - water lettuce
 Combretum bracteosum - Hiccup Nut  Nymphoides thunbergiana - Small Yellow Waterlily
 Podranea ricasoliana - Port St John’s Creeper  Trapa natans - Water Chestnut
 Plectranthus comosus - woolly plectranthus Pontederia cordata - pickerel weed
 Leonotis intermedia - Broad-leaved Leonotis  Cyperus textilis - Tall Star Sedge
 Pycnostachys reticulata - Slender Pycnostachys  Zantedeschia aethiopica - White Arum Lily
 Psidium cattleianum - strawberry or cherry guava Psidium guineense and psidium x durbanensis
 Dombeya rotundifolia - Common Wild Pear  Eugenia natalitia - Common Forest Myrtle
 Eugenia natalitia - Common Forest Myrtle  Lagynias lasiantha - Natal Medlar
 Rhus succedanea - wax tree Rivina humilis - bloodberry 
 Combretum kraussii - Forest Bushwillow  Freesia Iaxa - Small Red Iris
 Bridelia micrantha - Mitzeerie  Plectranthus zuluensis - Zulu Spur-flower
 Salvinia molesta - kariba weed Schefflera actinophylla - queensland umbrella tree 
 Ludwigia palustris - Marsh Ludwigia  Cussonia spicata - Common Cabbage Tree
 Nymphoides thunbergiana - Small Yellow Waterlily  Cussonia zuluensis - Zuklu Cabbage Tree
 Schinus terebinthifolius - brazilian pepper tree Senna didymobotrya - peanut butter cassia 
 Apodytes dimidiata - White Pear  Bauhina tomentosa - Bush Neat’s Foot
 Allophylus natalensis - Dune False Currant  Calpurnia aurea - Natal Laburnum
 Senna occidentalis - stinking weed or wild coffee Senna pendula - rambling cassia 
 Calpurnia aurea - Natal Laburnum  Calpurnia aurea - Natal Laburnum
 Hypericum revolutum - Curry Bush  Crotalaria capensis - Cape Rattle Pod
 Sesbania punicea - brazilian glory pea/red sesbania Solanum mauritianum 
 Erythrina humeana - Dwarf Coral Tree  Buddleja saligna - False Olive
 Mundulea sericea - Cork Bush  Buddleja salviifolia - Sagewood
 Solanum seaforthianum - small potato creeper Syzygium cuminii - jambolan 
 Asparagus falcatus - Large Forest Asparagus  Bridelia micrantha - Mitzeerie
 Cissus rotundiflolia - Bushveld Grape  Syzygium cordatum - Umdoni
 Tecoma stans - yellow bells Thelechitonia trilobata - wedelia or singapore daisy 
 Ochna natalitia - Natal Plane  Arctotheca calendula - Cape Weed
 Peltophorum africanum - Weeping Wattle  Gazania rigens - Trailing Daisy
 Thevwtia peruviana - yellow oleander Tithonia diversifolia - mexican sunflower 
 Ochna natalitia - Natal Plane  Berkheya speciosa - Showy Thistle
 Peltophorum africanum - Weeping Wattle  Euryops tysonii - Tyson’s Resin Bush
 Triplaris americana - ant tree  

Weed Buster

 Barringtonia racemosa - Powder-puff Tree  
 Erythrina lysistemon - Common Coral Tree  

Category 2

 Acacia mearnsii - black wattle Casuarina cunninghamiana - beefwood 
 Acacia robusta - Brack Thorn  Brachylaena discolor - Coast Silver Oak
 Acacia karroo - Sweet Thorn  Dodonaea viscosa - Sand Olive
 Casuarina equisetifolia - horsetail tree Eucalyptus grandis - saligna gum 
 Brachylaena discolor - Coast Silver Oak  Olea woodiana - Forest Olive
 Dodonaea viscosa - Sand Olive  Syzygium cordatum - Umdoni
 Leucaena leucocephala - leucaena Pinus elliottii - slash pine 
 Acacia karroo - Sweet Thorn  Podocarpus falcatus - Common Yellowwood
 Sesbania sesban - River Bean  Podocarpus latifolius
 Populus x canescens - grey poplar Psidium guajava - guava 
 Brachylaena discolor - Coast Silver Oak  Eugenia natalitia - Common Forest Myrtle
 Terminalia sericea - Silver Cluster-leaf  Lagynias lasiantha - Natal Medlar
 Ricinus communis - castor-oil bush

 

 

 Weed Buster

 Dombeya burgessiae - Pink Wild Pear  
  Dombeya tiliacea - Forest Wild Pear  

Category 3

 Acacia podalyriifolia - pearl acacia Coreopsis lanceolata - tickseed 
 Brachylaena discolor - Coast Silver Oak  Gazania krebsiana - Bush Gazania
 Tarchonanthus camphoratus - Wild Camphor Bush  Gazania rigens - Trailing Gazania
 Terminalia sericea - Silver Cluster-leaf  Haplocarpha scaposa - False Gerbera
 Duranta erecta - forget-me-not-tree Mimosa pudica - sensitive plant 
 Dovyalis caffra - Kei Apple  Indigofera micrantha - Forest Indigo
 Dovyalis longispina - Natal Apricot  Tephrosia capensis - Small Pink Tephrosia
 Plumbago auriculata - Plumbago  Tephrosia grandiflora - Large Pink Tephrosia
 Morus alba white - common mulberry

 

 

 Weed Buster

 Croton sylvaticus - Forest Fever-berry  
 Ficus sur - Broom Cluster Fig  
 Trimeria grandifolia - Wild Mulberry  

Acknowledgments
The production of this resource was a joint effort between the eThekwini Conservation Branch and Parks Department, the Wildlife and Environment Society of SA, and the Botanical Society of SA.

With additional assistance from:
* Lesley Henderson of the Plant Protection Research Institute. Agricultural Research Council
* Geoff Nichols, Richard Symmonds, Gareth Chittenden, Penny Croucamp and Richard Boon who supplied photographs.

This Poster’s/Booklet Objective
Prevention of alien plant invasions is far cheaper than control or eradication. This poster/Booklet profiles plants which are grown and sold by nurseries and used by landscapers and gardeners. Unlike most other exotic species, these plants have escaped formally planted areas and are appearing to varying degrees in natural ecosystems.

Some of the plants on this poster/booklet have not been placed in a category by the Department of Agriculture and are thus not covered by the new legislation. Currently they are considered regional problems and/or their weed potential is yet to be established.

The plants on this poster/booklet were selected using the following criteria:
* They have escaped formally planted areas in Durban and are likely to do so in other sub-tropical parts of South Africa
* They are potential transformers of natural habitats.
* They are ‘emerging’ problem species.

Control and Eradication
In practice a combination of mechanical, chemical and biocontrol methods are used to combat alien plants. However, where infestations are light or cover relatively small areas, control is best achieved by mechanical means. Tackle light infestations first and then denser infestations.

Small plants may be pulled out by the roots especially when the soil is moist. Larger plants may need to be dug out at the roots. The secret to success is to tackle the job in a planned way and to diligently follow-up to remove seedlings and regrowth.

For more serious problems herbicides and/or biological control, using natural predators or pests, may be used. It is recommended that professional advice is sought before using these methods.

Useful References
* Botha, C. And Botha, Bring Nature Back to Your Garden,
WESSA Handbook with a chapter on alien weeds and lots of suggestions for indigenous alternatives.
* Conservation of Agricultural Resourses Act, 1983 (Act No.43 of 1983)
* Guiding Principles for the Landscaping of the Durban Inner City and KwaZulu Natal Coastal Belt.
A Durban Metro publication available from the cashier at the City Engineers Building, 166 Old Fort Road, Durban.
* Henderson, L. The Complete Guide to Declared Weeds and Alien Plant Invaders in South Africa,
Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook. Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria.
*Moore, J. Eradicating Invading Alien Plants in KwaZulu-Natal.
Available from WESSA, 100 Brand Road, Glenwood, Durban.
* Vermuelen, et al. Or Grobler, H et al.  A Guide to the Use of Herbicides,
Available from Agricultural Information, Private Bag X 144, Pretoria, 0001.
* Olckers T. Et al. Biological Control of Weeds in South Africa (1990-1998)
African Entomology. Memoir No 1. Entomological Society of Southern Africa.